World Watch Ranking: 20

How many Christians are there in Egypt?

There are around 16.3 million Christians in Egypt, comprising almost 16 per cent of the country’s population.

What does persecution look like in Egypt?

The persecution of Christians in Egypt commonly occurs at community level. Incidents range from Christian women being harassed while walking on a street to whole communities of Christians being forced to move out of their homes by mobs of Muslim extremists. Such events typically happen in Upper Egypt, where ultra-conservative Islamic Salafist movements are active in rural communities.

Christians are typically treated as second-class citizens. While Egypt's government speaks positively about the Christian community, the lack of serious law enforcement and the unwillingness of local authorities to protect Christians leave them vulnerable to all kinds of attacks. The dictatorial nature of the regime means Christians feel unable to speak out against these practices.

Churches and Christian groups face many difficulties when trying to construct new buildings. The hindrances come from state restrictions, communal hostility and mob violence.

Christians from a Muslim background face enormous pressure from their families to return to Islam. The state also makes it impossible for them to get any official recognition of their conversion.

Who is most vulnerable to persecution?

Most incidents of persecution take place in Upper Egypt, which is known to be more conservatively Islamic and extremist than the north. The Minya Governorate is notorious for the high number of attacks on Christians. However, believers in the economically disadvantaged rural areas in the north experience a similar degree of oppression. Islamic extremist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood have nationwide support, but violent Islamic militants are only openly active in the north-eastern area of the Sinai Peninsula.

Meet Sara

Sara miraculously survived a knife attack by a Muslim extremist who said to her, "Dirty Christian, die!"

“If someone is willing to kill me for my faith, my God must be powerful."


What has changed compared to last year?

The challenges facing Christians in Egypt remain largely unchanged, although there has been a drop in levels of violence. This is most likely linked to COVID-19 restrictions—Christian activities have significantly decreased, which invites less provocation, and would-be perpetrators have been off the streets due to lockdowns.  

The biggest threat for converts from Islam to Christianity continues to come from family members.   

What does Open Doors do to help Christians in Egypt?

Open Doors works through local partners in Egypt to support the church with literacy training, education, advocacy support, medical care and youth, family and women’s ministry.

How can you pray for Egypt?

  • Pray for stable and fulfilling work for Christian men, so they can provide for their families.
  • Pray for the protection and flourishing of Christian women.
  • Pray that God will change the hearts of influential local leaders, to recognize and value the contribution Christians make to society.
a prayer for Egypt

Dear Father, we recognize that many of our brothers and sisters are hurting, grieving and fearful because of the cost that comes with following Jesus in Egypt. Powerfully minister Your peace, healing and comfort to their hearts and fill them with fresh hope, joy and faith. Keep Your children from harm. May the light of Your love shine brightly through them, drawing many to You. Amen.

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Map thumbnail
Persecution Level

Very High

Persecution Type
  • Islamic oppression
  • Dictatorial paranoia
  • Clan oppression
Population of Christians
16,250,000 (OD estimate)

Main Religion

Presidential Republic

President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi